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   2021| October-December  | Volume 23 | Issue 111  
    Online since December 28, 2021

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Associations of Earphone Use with Tinnitus and Anxiety/Depression
Jay Hyug Choi, Sung Su Park, So Young Kim
October-December 2021, 23(111):108-116
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_48_20  PMID:34975126
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of earphone use with audiologic and psychologic factors. Materials and methods: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012 data were collected for participants aged ≥12 years old with earphone use ≥1 hour/day. They were matched to a control group for age, sex, income, and education level. The relationship between earphone use and the hearing thresholds of pure-tone audiometry, tinnitus, and psychologic factors such as depression and anxiety, and other quality of life variables was analyzed using multiple logistic regression tests with complex sampling. Results: Among the participants, 22.9% (449/1955) of earphone users and 18.1% (355/1600) of control participants had tinnitus (P < 0.001). Earphone users showed 1.27-times higher odds for tinnitus (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09–1.50, P = 0.003). Moreover, 6.5% (128/1955) of earphone users and 5.0% (97/1600) of control participants had anxiety and depressive symptoms (P = 0.033). Earphone users showed 1.32-times higher odds for anxiety and depressive symptoms (95% CI = 1.14–1.52, P = 0.040). Nevertheless, the hearing thresholds were comparable between earphone users and control participants. Conclusion: Earphone use was associated with tinnitus and anxiety or depressive symptoms.
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Analysis of Studies in Tinnitus-Related Gene Research
Zhi-cheng Li, Bi-xing Fang, Lian-xiong Yuan, Ke Zheng, Shi-xin Wu, Nanbert Zhong, Xiang-li Zeng
October-December 2021, 23(111):95-107
DOI:10.4103/nah.nah_57_21  PMID:34975125
Objective: Summarize and analyze the current research results of tinnitus-related genes, explore the potential links between the results of each study, and provide reference for subsequent studies. Methods: Collect and sort out the research literature related to tinnitus genes included in PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform before December 31, 2019. Then the relevant contents of the literature were sorted out and summarized. Results: Fifty-one articles were finally selected for analysis: 31 articles (60.8%) were classified as researches on animal models of tinnitus, and 20 (39.2%) as researches on tinnitus patients. Existing studies have shown that genes related to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, nerve excitation/inhibition, and nerve growth are differentially expressed in tinnitus patients or animal models, and have presented the potential links between genes or proteins in the occurrence and development of tinnitus. Conclusion: The research on tinnitus-related genes is still in the exploratory stage, and further high-quality research evidence is needed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of Tonal Noise on Workers’ Annoyance and Performance
Jan Radosz
October-December 2021, 23(111):117-127
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_28_20  PMID:34975127
Objective: Numerous references indicate that the subjectively assessed tonal noise annoyance is higher than that of broadband noise. There are no criteria for the impact of tonal noise in assessing the occupational environment for both indoor areas and workplaces. Materials and Methods: The study participants included 50 people who met the audiometric qualification criteria. The research method employed both a questionnaire survey and computer psychological tests checking work performance, attention level, and memory. Four types of generated test signals were developed (filtered noise − A and three signals with tonal components 125, 1600, and 8000 Hz − B, C, and D) at the same sound level A of 55 dB. Test signals C and D were assessed as causing the greatest annoyance and as the loudest. Results: The results of some tests and the assessment of annoyance and of the volume of test signals containing medium and high frequency tonal components were correlated with the participants’ noise sensitivity, determined on the basis of a questionnaire. Although there are no statistically significant differences, it was observed in most cases for signals with C (1600 Hz) and D (8000 Hz) tonal components that the results (mean values or median values) of psychological tests deteriorated with respect to a noise signal without tonal components (A) − a smaller number of calculations, a smaller number of correct responses, more errors made. Conclusion: These results, combined with those of the questionnaire survey, justify the introduction of the tonality annoyance criterion for workstations where, among other things, focusing one’s attention is required.
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