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   2019| May-June  | Volume 21 | Issue 100  
    Online since July 9, 2020

 
 
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EDITORIAL
Music of microbiota against SARS CoV-2
Goran Belojevic, Deepak Prasher
May-June 2019, 21(100):97-97
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_45_20  PMID:32655062
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The sound-sensitive tinnitus index: Psychometric properties of a scale to assess the impact of tinnitus exacerbated by sound
Benjamin S Greenberg, Megan C Carlos
May-June 2019, 21(100):98-107
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_29_18  PMID:32655063
Context: Although studies of tinnitus exacerbated by sound exposure have indicated increased treatment challenges and intensified mental health and quality of life concerns, there is a lack of valid screening measures to differentiate or assess diagnostic factors and areas of impact unique to this specific symptom manifestation. Aims: The purpose of this study was to design a self-rated measurement tool that can accurately assess the subjective impact of tinnitus negatively modulated by external sound. Settings and Design: Based on review of established models of tinnitus and hyperacusis measurement and a two-part pilot study, the 20-item Sound-Sensitive Tinnitus Index (SSTI) was developed and administered in online survey format to 277 individuals worldwide. Methods and Material: Cronbach’s alpha was used to estimate reliability properties, and dimensional factor analysis was performed. To establish validity, statistical correlations of the SSTI were estimated with valid measures of related constructs including tinnitus, hyperacusis, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Results: Statistical analysis yielded high levels of internal consistency reliability, and convergent validity was demonstrated through significant correlations with all established measures of related constructs. Initial factor analysis indicated two components split between overall functional impact and coping factors, while rotated factor analyses revealed four distinct scale dimensions, labeled: functional challenges, relational and communication challenges, coping factors, and prevention and hearing protection. Conclusions: As a valid and reliable measure, the SSTI fills an important gap as a clinical and research tool that can differentiate and assess severity and treatment progress in manifestations of combined tinnitus and auditory sensitivity symptoms.
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Headphones and other risk factors for hearing in young adults
John Parsons, Mark B Reed, Peter Torre III
May-June 2019, 21(100):116-124
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_35_19  PMID:32655065
Background: Personal listening device (PLD) use with headphones is increasing in young adults and in most listening environments occur in background noise. Headphone choice can be important because certain headphones are more effective in limiting background noise than stock earbuds. Binge drinking, marijuana, and hard drug use have also been associated with high-volume PLD use. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between preferred headphone type, listening level, and other health risk behaviors. Methods: Two-hundred and twenty undergraduates were recruited and completed a PLD use and risk behavior survey. Survey data included self-reported alcohol and marijuana use. Bilateral otoscopy, tympanometry, and pure-tone threshold testing (0.25–8 kHz) were completed. Participants listened to one hour of music using preferred headphone type with a probe microphone in the ear canal to measure equivalent continuous sound level (LAeq). Results: Mean LAeq was similar for the three types of headphones used. Participants who reported higher amounts of drinks per month and smoking marijuana within the last month had significantly higher LAeq levels than those who reported lower amounts of drinks per month and not smoking marijuana in the last month. There was no significant interaction between headphone type and reported drinks per month or marijuana use. Conclusion: Young adults with normal hearing who have higher preferred listening levels also reported more alcohol and marijuana use, although headphone type was not associated with any of these variables.
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A simple, cost-effective, and novel method for determining the efficiency of industrial and commercial noise-canceling earmuffs
Shelby Zangari, Jaime E Mirowsky
May-June 2019, 21(100):108-115
DOI:10.4103/nah.NAH_52_19  PMID:32655064
Context: There are several ways to assess the noise reducing efficiency of earmuffs, but they usually involve using human participants and/or specialized equipment. Objective: The current study was designed to develop a less labor-intensive, cost-effective, participant-free first-pass method for measuring the efficiency of earmuffs. Methods: We evaluated the noise-cancelling ability of five different types of earmuffs (3M: Optime 98, Optime 105; iDEA USA V201; Tronsmart Encore S6; Bose QuietComfort 35) under laboratory and field conditions. We compared our results to the microphone-in-real-ear (MIRE) method. Lastly, a survey of college-aged students was also conducted to determine which earmuffs were the most comfortable and provided the best fit. Results: Of the five earmuffs studied, the Optime 98 and Bose earmuffs were most effective at reducing noise levels in both the laboratory and field. These earmuffs also received the highest scores for comfort, fit, and perceived ability to reduce noise, with Bose being slightly more preferred than Optime 98. The MIRE method provided the same overall results as the laboratory and field tests. Conclusion: Our method for evaluating the noise-canceling ability of earmuffs could be used to supplement more complicated testing procedures as a first-pass method.
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